How Would You Like to Compete With a Royal Wedding?

Spring brides all over Britain have been thrown for a loop by the announcement of the royal wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton. Once the April 29, 2011 date was set, ordinary women who had already been planning their weddings for the last weekend of April suddenly realized that their wedding would definitely be playing second fiddle to the grand event. What’s an ordinary bride to do when she comes to find out that a royal wedding will be upstaging her big day?

While there is something kind of neat about sharing a wedding anniversary with a royal couple, there are also a lot of headaches associated with it. Brides who had previously selected the April 2011 wedding date which was chosen by Prince William and Kate Middleton are facing an uphill battle to keep their wedding in the forefront of anyone’s mind for that special date. After all, the royal wedding will be a national holiday in England – how many of other women can say that about their wedding dates? The reality is that many of the wedding guests may be wishing that they were watching the royal wedding, when they are attending the one to which they were invited. For that matter, the bride herself may be interested in seeing the royal wedding on television!

So what is an ordinary bride to do when she realizes that her wedding will be in competition with the wedding of the year? One option is to change the wedding date. That is not as crazy as it sounds, especially for brides who were planning to get married anywhere remotely near Westminster Abbey or on any of the streets in the vicinity. Remember the legions of fans who lined the route which Lady Diana Spencer’s carriage traveled to take her to her wedding to Prince Charles? Surely that kind of scene will be repeated when Kate Middleton makes her approach to her wedding site in her custom bridal gown and royal jewelry, with all of the accompanying security and traffic snarls which you would expect. The ordinary bride who is getting married on April 29, 2011 may well find that just getting to her own wedding is a major struggle.

Of course, not every bride will be able to switch her wedding date, especially if deposits have already been made on the venue and vendors, so there will be plenty of women who share the royal wedding date. In that case, there are essentially two options: to either ignore the fact that there is another, more famous, wedding taking place at the same time, or to really embrace the royal wedding and to celebrate Kate and Prince William’s marriage along with your own. Show a film of Kate and Prince William’s vows at your wedding reception. Name the reception tables after famous places in the royal couple’s life (St. Andrews, Kenya, Westminster Abbey, etc.). Rather than trying to ignore the elephant in the room, embrace it.

Brides who wish to keep the focus on their own weddings despite the shared date with the royal wedding would do well to plan an event in a very different style. Competing with any royal wedding head to head in terms of style is an impossibility for most regular folks, so don’t even try! No matter how fabulous your wedding gown and custom bridal jewelry, they will not be instantly copied around the globe. No matter how happy the bride and groom are, their radiant faces will not be put on commemorate plates or postage stamps. So instead of attempting to put together a celebration with a grand style, go a different direction. Host an ultra-modern cocktail wedding in an art gallery or throw a picnic reception on a lawn out in the country. And of course, take heart that despite all the excitement of the royal wedding taking place on the same day as your own wedding, your family and friends will still be just as happy for you.

Finding a Good Tattoo For Women is a Lot More Difficult Than You Think

I wish you good luck on finding a good, quality tattoo for women, because you will probably need all the luck in the world. Without help, the average surfer is going to see nothing but the same generic junk over and over again. Now, this is easily reversible if do two simple things. Finding a good tattoo for women shouldn’t be so difficult and I’m going to help you make sure it isn’t.

If this isn’t making a whole lot of sense right now, don’t worry, because it’ll be crystal clear in a couple moments. The fact is that an overwhelming portion of the public (around ninety percent) is not finding even “one” gallery that has fresh, quality tattoos. It’s almost mind boggling how much this happens. This is until you find out “why” it is happening. The number one reason is because everyone relies way too heavily on search engines to find a tattoo for women.

Men do this to, as it is the entire population as a whole. Search engines just don’t work when looking for quality art. It’s that simple. Instead of getting a nice list of top notch galleries, you get this awful, random list of galleries that have nothing but the same generic junk as the next site. These are the same cookie cutter designs that have been aimlessly floating proud the web for what seems like nine years.

None of these places are taking the time to update their inventory, so that their visitors get to pick from quality stuff. All they care about is stuffing their site with as much content as possible, no matter how generic the tattoos are. Now, if this is the type of tattoo for women you want, you can continue looking for them this way, because it works. If you truly want to see the world of quality tattoos out there, you need to take a step back and use another searching method.

The good news is that there is something that can be done, which is just as easy as using a basic search engines. I am talking about forums, which can be sensational tools in finding amazing tattoos and the artwork for them. To find a good tattoo for women, all you have to do is spend a little time inside of some of the bigger forums. They are always going to have tons and tons of past (and present) topics revolving around tattoos. This is where you can get an inside peek at where people all over the world are finding quality artwork for their tattoos. People share link after link to the hidden galleries they uncover, which are usually the ones that take pride in having the best artwork possible. It’s that simple.

Looking for a good tattoo for women can be somewhat of a dirty chore sometimes, but it doesn’t have to make you go insane trying to wed through 1000’s of generic designs.

Henna Tattoo – An Ancient Practice to Adorn Women

Henna is a tropical flowering plant that comes from the Arabic word for Lawsonia Inermis pronounced as hina. It is a tall shrub or small tree that usually grows in Africa, Southern Asia and Northern Australia. The leaves of henna produce red-orange dye used in coloring the hair and tinting the parts of the body such as the hands and the feet.

Henna tattoo is an ancient Indian Body Art also known as Mehendi or Mehndi. It is an art that uses henna plant as an ink or color to intricate ethnic or contemporary design and exotic patterns traditionally applied on various parts of the body specifically the hands and feet of women in preparations for special ceremonies.

Since the late Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean, Mehndi is practice to adorn young women’s bodies as part of holiday and social celebrations. Early context shows that according to Ugaritic Legend of Baal and Anath, henna is used for marriage and fertility celebrations. The women are seen marking themselves with henna to prepare in meeting their husbands. Between 1500 and 500 BCE, paintings and statuettes of young women have been discovered. Their hands, nails, palms, and soles have markings and ancient patterns. Jews, Hindus, Zoroastrians and Christians celebrated marriages with henna to adorn the bride and often the groom as well. Traditionally, henna tattoo or Mehndi is used as a symbol of love and joy. It is a pre-wedding ritual to bring good fortune and happiness to the couple. It is said that the women will used as much henna to put different patterns like flowers and the names of their husbands. According to beliefs and traditions, marking the women’s bodies with henna attracts prosperity, love, healing and protection.

Nowadays, although henna tattoo is popular and more often used for women, men seem to find it a nice alternative to permanent tattoo. It is a painless and temporary process of tattooing. Mehndi or henna tattoo only lasts within one to four weeks. It is not a lifetime commitment. The design you have chosen today might be out for the next. Henna tattoo can be removed and be changed if a person has it wants another cool and unique design.

Wedding Photographers – Market to the Bride But Don't Forget the Groom

There are few absolute rules in the world and the following is by now means universal, but when it comes to weddings, the bride usually chooses and values the wedding photographer. Despite this fact, don’t forget the groom for he also plays a role.

What does this mean for your marketing plan? Your pictures should appeal to the bride. Men and women often find different stories appealing. This fact is evidenced by the numerous movies that are marketed primarily to women and those marketed primarily to men. If the industry thought the movie would appeal to swaths of both genders, in its own self-interest it would have marketed to both. A wedding photographer needs to follow the example of the movie industry and produce contact information that strongly appeal to the bride.

What is an example of how this can be implemented? Find out what is the age range in which most women in your area get married and get feedback on your pictures from those women on which of your pictures are the most compelling. Create a web gallery of the 20 pictures YOU find the most compelling. Send out a link to the gallery to friends or family who are in that age range and ask them to pick the two pictures which most strike a cord in them. You will begin to see a pattern arise of which pictures get most highly ranked. Put those pictures on your website and other promotional material. A comment on the type of pictures that will likely win out in this selection process: Brides want to see pictures that make the bride look beautiful. Usually the bride looking beautiful is important to the groom as well. How good the man looks, while important to a bride, is not as important as how the man is interacting with the bride. He should be looking deeply into her eyes or admiring her from a far. A chemistry between the two should be readily apparent. These types of pictures, from my experience, most often appeal to the bride.

When meeting with couples sell your work to the bride but don’t forget the groom. After all, with any luck, a significant chunk of change from their assets are going to be paid to you for your service. Help him to see the value he will be receiving by investing in photography. Help him to see that the wedding photos is (at least for this particular couple) a once in a lifetime experience – one that can never be replicated. It is important that he see the value in your work. More than one groom has vetoed the bride’s choice of photographers because he didn’t see the value in the service. Helping him come on board with the bride’s choice is one way to prevent a potential conflict between the couple and capturing marital harmony is after all what the service of wedding photographers is all about!

Choosing Your Ideal Wedding Flowers

As well as everything else to be planned for your big day, you need to choose your wedding flowers, which for many brides is one of the most enjoyable selections they get to make while arranging their wedding. While some women prefer to have a very personalized bridal bouquet, others see their wedding flowers as a chance to keep their overall wedding theme running through every aspect of the ceremony.

A wedding bouquet is the finishing touch to your bridal dress, and a well designed one will enhance your ensemble, bring out your best features and coloring and complement your bridesmaid dresses as well. Wedding flowers are also one of the most prominent features in photographs, so make sure you are happy with them as they will be in your memory for a long time.

There are whole galleries online of wedding flower ideas to help inspire you, and some places allow you to buy bridal bouquets online directly for delivery on the day, which can be very convenient and cost-effective. There are plenty of forums and florists on the Internet which can give you starting points for flower arrangements and color ideas, and you can also look at photos of other weddings, bridal magazines and even in the window of your local florist to get your imagination going.

If you have a wedding theme idea, think how to integrate that into your bridal bouquet and other flowers. For example, you could add some shells to a beach wedding theme, or some sprigs of holly for a Christmas wedding theme. For colors, it is a good idea to have a swatch of your bridesmaid dresses to make sure you can get matching or complementing colors for both the blooms themselves and any wraps or ribbons.

You might want to pick one or two types of special flowers which you would like to feature; perhaps they have a special meaning for you or are associated with memories of yourself and your groom, or others in your family. However it is still a good idea to work within the seasons depending on when you are having your wedding party. Although popular choices like roses and lilies are usually available all year, many other flowers are seasonal so prices will fluctuate. If you want an out of season flower in your bridal bouquet you could have it imported but this can be very expensive so it is best to stick to locally sourced blooms if you can.

How to Find a Unique Black Wedding Dress

A Black wedding dress can be so stunning. Imagine a hand beaded full bodice black wedding gown with a corset styled back. This bridal gown would have lots of Swarovki crystals all over the black skirt.

This is what I call a very memorable moment of exotic beauty. Many women, perhaps have never given any consideration about the beauty of a black wedding dress.

Now if you’re looking for some gowns there are some awesome bridal gown stores in the United Kingdom that carry black wedding dresses.   You can do a search for these by using the word gothic wedding dresses.

A lot of the shops in the United Kingdom can also ship to other countries so make sure that you call and ask about shipping. Now if after all the searching you still don’t see what you are looking for you can always have someone make you a unique black wedding dress.

When you hire someone to make you a wedding gown, your gown will now become unique and you can have it designed your way.

Make sure you are planning ahead if this is your decision to design your gown. You will want to shop around for the fabric to make sure you are finding what you are looking for in black fabric.

There are some designers like the Alfred Angelo dress gallery who can order a dress from his gallery in black. Imagine if you decided to go with an awesome black wedding dress. The colors that go with the color black, often seem to look more beautiful and vivid in contrast to the color black. For instance, if your wedding is going to be around Christmas time, you can have a black and gold wedding.

Everyone in your wedding party would be wearing black with gold accents. This is a wonderful holiday look. Now if you decide to get married around Valentine’s Day your colors could be black and red. The colors black and red together are very bold and rich looking.

Take a minute and imagine yourself carrying some beautiful red roses as you walk down the aisle in that beautiful black wedding dress. Always remember this is the day that you express your ideas with your love ones.

Henna Tattoo – A Prehistoric Pattern of Decorating Women

Henna, also called hina, a tropical flowered plant, a tall bush or tiny tree, its name originating off the Arabic word Lawsonia Inermis, normally grows in Africa, Northern Australia and Southern Asia. Its leaves yield red orange dye applied in tinting the human hair besides hands and feet.

Fresh leaves of the henna plant are dried and crushed to a fine powder. Mehendi, the multicultural art of henna body decoration has become an alternative to the everlasting traditional tattoo. Henna is a challenging medium for the artist. If you would like to learn more about applying henna, browse over to the makers of Mehendi Information page since the skin is the largest organ of the body and it is important that we are kind to it. Henna has been used for coloring the hair. Henna hair colors are herbal and hence safe to use. Moreover, they keep your hair cool.

Tattoo off henna is an old Indian Body Art called Mehendi, which employs henna plant to ink or tinting to complex patterns, otherwise referred to as modern day and alien patterns conventionally utilized on different parts of our body particularly the ladies’ hands and feet to mark any special celebrations.

Since the early Bronze Age of the Eastern Mediterranean and ancient context of Ugaritic Legend of Anath and Baal, mehendi is applied for wedding and fertility festivities with women found marking themselves as preparation to meet their spouses. Between 1500 -500 BCE, statuettes and pictures of young women with their hands, nails and feet with markings and old designs were discovered. Henna tattoo or mehendi is worn as a mark of love and happiness and Hindus, Jews, Zoroastrians and Christians feted the marriages by adorning the brides besides he grooms with henna as a pre-marital besides other festive rituals to shower happiness and bright fortunes to the couples. Beliefs and traditions indicate henna makings on women’s bodies pull healing, love, happiness and protection.

Of late, men too find henna as an alternate option to permanent tattoo as it is painless besides being temporary due to its lasting property extending to maximum 4 weeks. Besides the constant change in designs enable its easy removal.

History of the Wedding Dress Part 2

Prior to new medicine, a long and healthy life was not really that easy to attain, but other people attempted to make sure that they had outstanding chance for success by following superstition. Many superstitions grew over the years around weddings, to bring about the brides happiness in her new house and of course to guarantee her fertility. The colour of the wedding gown was believed fashionably to bring luck to the couple.

White, or a form of white, was, after all always the favourite and symbolised a woman’s virginity and virtue in the face of her imminent change of circumstances. White, though, was not always the favourite choice and was considered not practical for most purposes. Blue (worn by a bride in 1870, whose wedding dress is displayed in the London Museum), with its connection to the Virgin Mary, represented a robust image of purity, which, by tradition symbolised faithfulness and never-ending love (this gave rise to the reason that sapphires were used in engagement earrings). Brides, who wore blue at their wedding, believed that their husbands would be faithful to them, so even when the wedding dress was not blue, they would ensure that they wore something blue on their wedding day. This is where the tradition that has survived to present day, came from.

Another popular colour was pink; this was considered very appropriate for a May wedding. Pink flatters most complexions and is associated with the bride’s girlhood, but a few superstitions said it to be unlucky, as the quote state “Marry in pink and your fortunes will sink”! Mrs Joseph Nollekens was very much considered fashionable in 1772 in her saque gown made from brocaded white silk embellished with delicate crimson flowers. She also wore shoes made from the similar material, which had heels of three and a half inches (approx. 8cm). Deeper shades of red were unquestionably taboo by the Victorian era, with the reference to scarlet ladies and hussies.

One of the most unpopular shades was green. This was thought to be the colour of the fairies, and it was considered bad luck to call the attention of the little people to oneself through a time of change. Green was also linked with the lushness of verdant foliage and it was believed that it could cause rain to spoil the wedding day.

Reminiscent of the days of homemade clothing, any natural hue of brown or beige was once considered very bucolic. And the saying is “Marry in brown you will live out of town” and implied that you are going to be country bumpkin and that you would never be able to do well in the city.

The intense shades of yellow have varied in popularity. During the eighteenth century it was considered THE fashionable colour for a short time and many would wear it for their wedding day, like a bride of around 1774 whose wedding dress is in the Gallery of English Costume in Manchester. However prior to this time yellow had been related to heathens and non Christians and would not be worn in church as it was considered an unholy colour!

A very common colour wedding dress, for brides from lower class families, was grey, mainly because it was a very useful colour that could easily be re-used as Sunday best, being considered extremely well thought-of. Mary Brownfield chose grey twilled silk as suitable, as a maiden woman of 32 years at the time of her marriage in 1842. Grey was associated with women in domestic services during Victorian times, and they would frequently be supplied with a brand new gray dress once every 12 months by their employer. The deeper shade of gray or black was banned, as it was linked with mourning and of course death. As a matter of fact it was once seen as such a loathsome harbinger of bad luck, that in a few places even the wedding guests were not allowed to wear it. A recent widow would adjust her mourning dress for a red gown for the wedding day, to protect the bride. At the same time this deepened the aversion towards red, which was once considered as bridal mourning.

For the brides who were compelled by personal economics into wearing a dress which would soon become their every day wear, would embellish it for their wedding day with temporary decorations. In fact up until the nineteenth century, ribbons were tied into bows or “love knots” and loosely affixed to the wedding dress. “Bride Laces” as they were called would be pulled off by the wedding guests during the wedding reception, and would be kept as wedding ceremony favours, or souvenirs. This practice steadily died out and was replaced with flowers instead. Guests could be given floral button-holes to put on, and the bride may wear flowers in her hair either as a corsage or garlanded around her Wedding Dress, otherwise she can carry them as a bouquet. Myrtle and Rosemary were two of the early favourites. Orange blossom became fashionable in the 1830s. This practice has, in fact, remains to present day – Regardless of how simply dressed; many brides will have included a flower or two somewhere within their outfit! Charlotte Pennell married George Hill in 1910, when she was nearing 40 and never had any intention of wearing a “once only” dress. However she did embellish her fashionable attire with a posy of flowers in her hat and had a matching bouquet.

The “conventional” wedding attire as we now know it now first appeared in the latter part of the eighteenth century. With the beginning of mechanically made fabrics and inexpensive muslins being imported from India and with styles inspired by the classical world, by eighteen hundred a white wedding gown with a veil was fashionable choice. As was usual with fashion, it started in London and soon extended to other cities and eventually to the country villages. This new fashion was given the royal approval when Princess Charlotte wore this style of attire at her marriage to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg in 1816. Queen Victoria in 1840 selected Honiton lace and white silk for her wedding which made it the fashionable rule. Also setting new fashion, the Queen was to be one of the first royal brides to have had bridesmaids carry her train.

Even a bride in the nineteenth century, who decided to wear a white wedding dress, would have expected to wear her dress again. For the season of “bride visits” she would visit close family and friends and as a newly married woman, she would wear her wedding dress, with the decorative flowers and train removed. A more affluent bride might then modify the bodice of the outfit (frequently made independently) and re-trim it for evening attire or for any other occasion. Queen Victoria herself took off the lace overskirt from her dress and regularly used it again, she was to wear it over a black silk gown for her Diamond Jubilee festivities over 50 years later.

Up until the Nineteen Twenties wedding gowns were always in fashion, just more elaborately embellished than standard and maybe slightly more modest than the most daring fashion. During the 20’s however, there was a complete revolution in all women’s clothing, where skirt hemlines rose from just above the shoe to well above the knee. To begin with wedding dress styles followed and brides would show their ankles; however as skirts grew ever more shortened, it seemed that some felt that it was not suitable for services in church and most brides gave preference to full-length wedding dresses. This choice of either following the seasonal fashion or reverting to a full length wedding dress and train led to the devolvement of completely separate style during the twentieth century which would sometimes echo but more often diverge from mainstream fashion (like the Vionnet couture design of 1926).

This change was magnified by the interruption caused by the Second World War due to clothing being rationed, uniforms were everywhere, and light-heartedness was looked down on. At the end of the war, fashion returned and brides were evermore keen to wear long wedding dresses made from sumptuous fabrics for their wedding day. This trend took place irrespective of the growing popularity of casual wear, easy wear apparel and trousers for women. As fashion has developed into a more at ease and sporty attire, wedding fashions have deviated further, so much so, that although each decade’s brides can be easily distinguished through the fashion then in vogue, it is not because of the fact that that the fashion’s resemblance to typical fashion.

Super Sexy Tattoos For Women

If you are like most, trying to find a sexy tattoo for women can be a daunting task. You can be like everyone else and go to the tattoo parlor and try to find something that suites your needs and wants but first, who has time for that and second, do you really want a tattoo that has been on thousands of women already?

Before you can find a sexy tattoo for women you first need to decide where you put the tattoo. Where you place the ink on your body will determine the style and size you can go for. Listed below are some recommendations of where to put a tattoo and the largest recommended size you should do so you can still pull of the sexiness of the tattoo.

Lower Back: This is a great place for a sexy tattoo as it can be seen with a sexy shirt of bathing suite. If you place a tattoo here you would not want anything larger than about 5″ by 5″ unless you are doing a wider tattoo such as a vine or script. In these cases, you can spread the width of your back but it still should not be more than about 4-5 inches high.

Wrist: Wrist tattoos are super hot but I would suggest really sleeping on this one. Depending on the job you have it may be frowned upon having a visible tattoo on your body. Wrist tattoos should be no large than the size of post-it note and I would stay away from dark colors just in case you need some skin cream to cover it up for social events such as galas, church and weddings.

Ankle Tattoos: Ankle tattoos are crazy sexy and you would want to follow the same rules as the wrist tattoo. At the ankle however, you can go a bit bigger if you choose. The most common type of tattoo for the ankle is one that wraps the entire area such as a band.

Now where do you find these sexy tattoos?

Now that you decided on a location the best place to find a tattoo is online. But wont your search bring up unoriginal designs? In most cases yes. That is why if you want to find a unique, clear tattoo you can print out online I would recommend joining a tattoo membership site. These sites do have a onetime low cost but it is good for life. Each day new tattoos are added and if you do not find something you like you can post a message in the private forum they provide you.

Guide To Meeting Women – Top 50 Places To Find Your Next Girlfriend

A common question I get asked is “Tony, I want to start working on this stuff but I don’t know where the heck to start meeting women.” I totally understand. There isn’t exactly a Google Maps showing where all the hot women in your city congregate. One thing you have to understand is you can meet women anywhere. If you walk down the street or go to the grocery store, there are always opportunities presenting themselves. However, I’ve compiled a massive list of places to meet women. After going through this list, you will have ZERO excuses not to go out and start meeting women.

Before I get into the list, here are a few caveats:

Don’t Be a Creep – Meeting women should be a secondary benefit of going to the places listed on this list. Go to these places for the sake of trying something new, not to hunt for women. For example, go to an art walk with a couple of your friends because it’s cool new thing to do. Don’t be the creepy guy that’s going only to hit on women. That’s weirdo behavior.

Bring a Group of Friends – Always try and gather a group of people to go with. When you meet women, it’s like she’s joining the fun party that’s already going on. However don’t let this stop you if you can’t find anyone to go with. Nothing is wrong with going to the places alone.

Type of Location = Type of Woman – Where you find a woman will directly correlate to the type of women she is. For example, women at hardcore punk rock dive bars will probably be much different from women you’ll meet at a local church. Therefore, have an idea of the type of women you want to date, then go the places they normally frequent. If you don’t know, the be open to trying out everything on the list.

No Order of Importance – There isn’t a particular order of importance of places on this list. Some will pop out more than other to you, but be open to try everything out. There is no one place that is better to meet women than others. You can meet and attract women ANYWHERE if you’re a cool guy.

You Can Meet Women Anywhere – Guys think they have to constantly go to bars or clubs to meet women. In actuality, you don’t have to deviate too far from your existing routine. If you walk down the street or go to the grocery there are always opportunities to meet new women.

1. Social Media Sites (Facebook) – I know many guys who’ve seen ENORMOUS success meeting women through social media sites like Facebook. There’s definitely an art and a science going this route so do your research on how to go about messaging girls without coming off as a creep. However when you have it down, sky’s the limit to the amount of women you can meet.

2. Coffee Shops – Women are ALWAYS at places like Starbucks or Caribou Coffee either grabbing a quick drink, with another cutie friend of theirs or just getting some work done. These are very low-key place to strike up conversation.

3. Local Colleges – If you live by a college, this can be a GOLD mine for young, single and hot women. My recommendation is to go during summer school. There aren’t too many people on campus so girls are ALWAYS looking for new people to hang out with.

4. Book Stores – If a girl is browsing through a book section you know a little bit about, it’s very easy to walk up and start talking about the subject. Tip: Weekend afternoons and weekday evenings is when you’ll find the most women at book stores. Book stores are often times empty otherwise.

5. The Gym – Women who regularly go the gym are definitely the type you want to be hanging around. They take care of their bodies, are self-motivated and often times are extroverted… All GREAT qualities in a girlfriend.

6. Museums & Galleries – I’m not going to lie, museums & galleries won’t be the most target rich places during the weekdays. However, on the weekends these places can be PACKED with women to strike up a conversation about whatever gallery you happen to be in.

7. Laundry Mats – Women are bored out of their minds at laundry mats and because of this, are more willing to talk when a guy such as yourself approaches. This is a golden opportunity because you’ll often have up to 2 hours of time to hang out while you both wait for your clothes to be ready.

8. Local Swimming Pools – Women in bikinis… Hmm, need I say more?!?

9. Beaches – Again, a no-brainer.

10. Pet Shops – Many women who have dogs and cats will go to pet shops regularly to get supplies or food. This is the perfect opportunity to ask a situational opener like “Hey, have you tried this type of dog food? I’m taking care of my buddy’s dog and I don’t know what I’m doing. I’ve officially assigned you to help me…”

11. Hardware Stores – Although you may think hardware stores are testosterone driven, many women will frequent these stores for garden supplies and random knick-knacks for the home.

12. Ikea – Not only is this a great place to meet new women, this is one of my favorite places to bring girls out on dates. You can goof around and pretend you are newlyweds shopping for furniture. When meeting women, just go up to them and ask “Hey, I’m looking to get new furniture for my room and I need a woman’s opinion. Can you help me out?”

13. Restaurants – Restaurants are a FILLED with women to meet. Here’s the caveat: Don’t approach women when they’re eating. It’s just rude interrupting someone while their enjoying their meal so approach before she gets her meal or after she’s done eating. Usually there’s a bar in the restaurant you can transition things to.

14. Churches – I’ll be honest with you. Some places (i.e. Night Clubs) are where you’ll tend to find certain type of women to hook up with. Other places (i.e. Churches) are where you’ll find quality women you can settle down for the long-term. Church often times hold social events filled with many quality women to meet.

15. Supermarket – Some guys complain that they never have enough time to meet women. If you go grocery shopping then you have no excuses. I guarantee you’ll find a handful of women to approach at your local grocery store (especially if you live in a big city). Tip: Weekday nights and weekends are the best time to go. Anytime else you’ll find moms or old people.

16. Social Circle – This is the ultra traditional route the majority of guys rely on. Meeting women through a mutual friend is the number one way guys find their girlfriend. You just can’t beat this because a woman thinks so positively of you after a solid introduction from a friend.

17. On The Street – If you live in a city, there are a plethora of women rushing through the streets during the daytime. I lived in Chicago and in the summer, I’d always find more and hotter women walking down the street than I’d see in most night clubs.

18. Fitness Classes – If you’re currently working out alone, start going to fitness classes asap. It’s like killing two birds with one stone. You’re going to work out anyway, so might as well do it alongside a group of women at a spinning or kickboxing class.

19. Dance Classes – If you’ve rarely been physical with a woman, I’d suggest going to dance classes. With styles such as Tango, you’re forced to be up close and personal with your dance partner. It will also teach you first hand how to physically lead women, albeit on the dance floor. My personal favorite is Salsa. There’s usually a lack of guys at Salsa classes, so you’ll have your way with all the women taking turns to dance with you.

20. Tanning Salons – If you’re pale, you need to start tanning. I’m not saying you need to look like the newest member of Jersey Shore, but giving your skin a little color makes you look livelier. Oh and by the way, there are an INORDINATE amount of women at these places.

21. Hair Salons – Like tanning salons, the woman to man ratio in hair salons is staggering. If you have the money, getting your hair styled is definitely worth it. Actual professionals work at these places who can style your hair better than you’ve eve imagined.

22. Makeup Stores – You might think going to a makeup store is the equivalent of getting your balls sawed off, but most makeup stores holds stuff for men such as cologne. This is the golden opportunity to ask women them their opinion of different colognes.

23. Malls (clothing stores) – Malls are another place filled with cuties. Again, another perfect opportunity to approach women for their opinion on a particular clothing style your thinking about going with. There are lots of teenagers scattered in malls so make sure the women you are talking to are actually… well… of age!

24. In The Building of Your Work – I know lots of guys who’ve met a lot of women just by walking up and down the different floors of their office building. If you happen to work in a big building, chances are there are many women just as bored as you are dying to meet new people. Tip: Go on your lunch break. This is often when you’ll see the most traffic inside the building.

25. Parties – Parties are my absolute favorite on this list. It’s THE perfect atmosphere to meet new women. You’re having fun with your friends, she’s having fun with her friends and the atmosphere pumps her state up with all the music and drinks. Everyone is talking everyone so going up to her is almost expected.

26. Yoga Classes – Go to a Yoga class even if you’re not looking to meet women. There are so many benefits. You’ll improve your strength, flexibility, posture, breathing and generally become a more centered person. Like dance classes, yoga has a disproportionate amount of women to men. Plus, yoga classes teach women to contort themselves in all sorts of different err… Yoga positions.:-)

27. Book Signings/ Discussion Groups – Women tend to gravitate towards certain authors. For example, Chelsea Handler has an ENORMOUS female readership of ages around 18 – 35. If you manage to find a book signing or a discussion group of readership for these type of authors, you’ll feel like a kid on Christmas morning.

28. Modeling Events – Modeling agencies often have social mixers for those in the industry. Find out where they are and find a way to get in. I’ve personally been to a few myself and of all my years, I’ve never seen so many hot women in one room so damn open to meet new people.

29. Acting Classes – Acting classes are something you should be going to regardless of meeting new women. It will develop your voice, help you think better on you feet (especially Improv classes) and generally improve your self-confidence. There are of course many women that attend these classes.

30. Bars – I HATE when people say women don’t want to meet men at bars. Yes it’s true, women dream of meeting their “Prince Charming” serendipitously like in all the romantic comedies they’ve been brain washed by. However, in the real world cool guys are hard to find and women are ALWAYS open to talking to one. It doesn’t matter if it’s in a bar, a grocery store or at a freakin’ funeral.

31. Clubs – Lots of pros and cons with clubs. Pros: they hold the highest concentration of hot women in one room. Cons: dark, way too loud, intimidating and most women’s “I’m better than you” meter are off the charts. Bottom Line: since there are so many women that won’t remember who the hell you are, it’s the best place to work on game.

32. Lounges – Lounges have the best aspects of both the bar and club world. They’ll have the attractive women clubs tend to hold, while keeping the mellow atmosphere of bars.

33. Strip Clubs – You probably won’t find the future mother of your children at a strip club, but it’s a GOLDEN opportunity to interact with women who are VERY attractive and probably have tighter game than you. Being able to transition the strippers focus off your wallet will teach you many conversational skills you couldn’t develop otherwise.

34. Online Dating Services – I’ve heard mixed reviews from sites like Match and eHarmony. My take is guys who don’t see results with these sites tend to dabble. They’ll try it out for a few months, won’t put much effort it, then cancel their account soon after. Like anything, you’ve got to put the work in and stick it out in order to see results.

35. Singles Mixer Events – If you live in a bigger city, they’ll usually hold mixers for singles. When I lived in Chicago, the Museum of Modern Art held an event where thousands of twenty and thirty somethings came each month to meet new people.

36. Yelp.com or Metromix. Events – These sites are the absolute best resource you have at your disposal to find places to meet women. From restaurants, to bars, to various events, these sites are on top everything and anything social in your city. Tip: One day out of the month, set aside time and browse through these sites. Calendar in a cool new thing to do each day of the upcoming month.

37. Dog Parks – Dog parks are littered with women and their dogs. Striking up a conversation is too easy if both your dogs are playing with each other. Also, you can tell a lot about a woman by the type of dog she own. Believe me, a woman who owns a Poodle and a woman who owns a German Shepard are two completely different people.

38. Speed Dating – Speed dating can be a powerful way to not only meet women, but to improve your conversation repertoire. In less than 2 hours, you could potentially have chatted with 15 different women. It’s like going to the basketball gym to work on your jump shot. If you mess up or meet a girl you’re uninterested in, there’s always a new girl around the corner.

39. Amusement Parks or Local Fairs – These are a preferred destination for couples, but there are still many single women hanging out at amusements parks or local fairs. What’s great about these places is the opportunity for an insta-date. Approach, converse, then once she’s attracted transition things by going on one of the rides with her.

40. Co-Ed Sporting Leagues – These are fun not only to meet women, but to just have a freakin’ good time with friends. The type of women that gravitate towards activities like co-ed softball or volleyball leagues tend to be athletic, low-maintenance, and overall fun women who are into sports… pretty much all the qualities guys look for in girlfriends. 🙂

41. Weddings – I don’t know what it is about weddings, but they always seem to hold single women. When you factor in the open bar, the music and the fact that another one of the woman’s friends got married leaving her feeling VERY single, it’s like hook-up city.

42. Cooking Classes – I’ve heard mixed reviews with cooking classes. A few of my buddies went expecting to find women like those hot chefs you see on The Food Network. They were pretty disappointed when they realized they were the only ones under 50 in the room. 🙁

43. Concerts – Here’s a tip: Most women in concerts are so focused on the stage it doesn’t make sense to approach then. In actuality, the best time to meet women is when you’re in line to buy food and drinks. Lines are painfully long and women are often times by themselves. These are THE best conditions to strike up a conversation.

44. Sporting Events – Use the same tip I’ve laid out for concerts. More than likely you’re rooting for the same team so starting a conversation about something relevant to the game is a golden opportunity. What’s great with sporting events is there’s usually tons of bars surrounding the stadium. If things are going well, continue the action by bringing her to one of these bars.

45. Art Classes – Women love art and more than likely there are art classes held somewhere in your city. The guy to girl ratio at the classes are ALWAYS favoring so take advantage of this.

46. Art Walks – Cities will often hold outdoor exhibitions where local artists display their work for the public. Many times there’s bands playing, local pubs serving drinks and most importantly all sorts of women perusing through the booths. Again, a perfect opportunity for an insta-date.

47. Community Service – You shouldn’t be doing community service just to pick up chicks. That’s just downright sleazy. However, if there is a organization you want to get involved in, often times a side benefit of this is meeting the kind, warm-hearted, compassionate women who are also involved.

48. Organized Trips – Organized trips are a great way to meet women because right off the bat you both have a solid common interest. These can range from scuba diving, bird watching, bus tours, hiking and mountain climbing. Also, these types of environments are very low-key so you can really get to know the woman you meet.

49. Meetup.com Groups – There are an endless amount of special interest groups where members meet up regularly. Many of these groups are FILLED with women. Go to Meetup.com and search the groups in your city. What’s great about this is you can see photos of the groups and find which are filled with women before even going to a meeting.

50. Wine Tasting Events – GREAT place to meet elegant, classy women. Believe me, after going to countless dive bars attempting to talk with drunken girls belching the night away, it’s reassuring to meet a more sophisticated type at wine tasting events.

Why Go For Natural Health Treatment and How Does it Work?

Natural health treatments have acclaimed much popularity these days as it has the amazing ability to handle all sorts of health conditions. Proper natural treatments can heal mental as well as physical illness and ailments such as insomnia, stress, lack of energy and immunity, cardiovascular problems, and recently even cancer. Basically, natural health treatment is done with two aims in mind:

  • Attaining good and healthy life.
  • Harnessing specific ailments and diseases.

Both these aims can be achieved easily with the use of high quality herbal health care products.

The present lifestyle of the people has impelled them to depend on nutritional supplements since there are wide gaps in the intake of nutritional diets. Health nutritional supplements work as a compliment to the healthy food and hence provide a better healthy life as it fulfill the lacking vitamins, minerals, amino acids, calcium and several other essential components of the body. It is a treatment that works with the natural recuperative powers of the human body and thereby adds on to the overall good health of a person.

Natural health treatment is known to cure problems related to men, women, and children whether it is weight loss, deficiencies and disorders. The treatment of the herbal health products can aid in maintaining healthy mind and body.

How Do These Supplements Work In Getting Rid of the Ailment?

  • The natural health supplement removes harmful substances from the body such as chemical poisons, environmental toxins, and detrimental organisms like parasites, bacteria, and viruses and so on. In short, these herbal products have the ability to detoxify the body completely.
  • Filling up the gap of the nutrition in the body. Herbal health care products are rich in nutrition and hence they provide the body with effective nutrition in the right proportion.
  • It enables the body systems to work efficiently and energetically. The health nutritional supplements have direct effect on the nervous system, lymphatic system, elimination organs, and blood circulation and so on.
  • The herbal healthcare products strengthen the immune system of the body as well as it contains several nutritional components.
  • It affects the mind in the most positive manner and thereby relieving the mind and body from stress and exertion.

As it is popularly said that healthy mind rests in healthy body, herbal health care products and natural health treatments help in keeping mind and body fit and fine.

Taxi Medallions For Yellow Cabs of New York City

The Taxi Medallion of New York City

The New York City Taxi Medallion is an interesting form of property. It represents a transferable right granted by the City to pick up passengers, but through regulation the dollar value of this right is now nearing a million. In Fact, Some of the Richest Workers In America are Taxi Drivers In New York City.

Trading in the price range of $600,000.for the individual medallion, and almost three quarters of a million for the coveted corporate or “mini” fleet medallion, the New York City Taxi industry has seen its overall value increase by almost five-hundred percent since the turn of the century.

The Taxi Medallion is a special license plate affixed to the hood of a New York City Yellow Taxi cab. It represents the license for picking up passengers from the streets. No other transportation service has this right.

The medallion system began in the 1930’s. In the 1960’s all medallion taxicabs were required to be painted yellow.

The medallion number is must be clearly visible on the taxicab roof light, license plates, as well as on the door exterior, and in the vehicle interior.

There are different types of “Medallions”. The individual, the corporate or fleet medallion, and the Handicap Access Medallion.

The individual medallion requires the owner (post 1990), to operate the yellow taxicab 210 nine-hour shifts per year. This underlying requirement guarantees the availability of taxi transportation. It is not unusual for two taxi drivers to form partnerships and share the medallion, or for an individual owner to lease out the taxi for the shifts he is not working.

The corporate or fleet medallion does not need to be operated by the owner. In fact, the owner need not have a NYC Taxi operator’s license at all. The fleet medallion can be leased, and often is on a shift-by-shift basis, twice per day, for as much as $140 per twelve hour rental.

There is a network of brokers and agents who manage and lease taxicabs and medallions to independent taxi drivers under daily, weekly, and long-term arrangements for investors.

As an investment, the most interesting aspect of the New York City Taxi Medallion is the anti-cyclical valuations. In2009, as the US and world economies are shrinking, medallion value is soaring.

When banks and stock brokerages, construction companies and retailers lay off workers, one of the first places the unemployed workers seek income is in the taxi industry. So, as the general economy suffers the number of available taxi cabs shrinks as more people seek them and those already working are forced to work more shifts as competition for fares increases.

There are a limited number of medallions. Currently just over 13,200. This number was constant at 11,787 for more than sixty years when in the 1990’s then Mayor Rudolph Giuliani approved NY City Taxi & Limousine Commissioner Christopher Lynn to conduct three auctions, selling four hundred medallions.

The sales netted the City approximately one hundred-million dollars. The politics behind the sales was very intense and telling, as shortly after the sales were completed the industry applied for and received a rate of fare increase. After a few short years another proposal for new medallion auctions was approved by Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

The successive medallion sales created slightly more than one thousand-forty new medallions. During these auctions the Handicap Access Medallion was introduced at a substantial discount to regular market prices. This was to entice owners to pay the extremely high price of retrofitting vehicles with automatic ramps to accommodate wheelchairs. They were all sold, and on a percentage basis have risen in value more than other medallions.

Is it Still Safe For Your Child to Ride a School Bus?

Riding a school bus to school in the mornings and the afternoons has been a tradition for many years now. It has always been a concern for parents on the first day their put their child on the bus because they worry about whether or not they will be afraid or if their safety should be a concern. Usually after the first couple of weeks it becomes routine and most parents never give it much thought after that.

However, in recent years there are a number of reasons that parents are having to be cautious when they have children that ride a school bus to and from their schools. This is because in recent years especially, there has been an alarming increase in the number of children that fight on the bus even as the bus drivers watch in their rear view mirror. There have been many serious incidents where children have been ganged up on by several other kids at one time.

Another concern that has just recently came to light is the risk of a child being molested on the bus by other children on the bus. Older students have been found guilty of molesting smaller kids as they ride to or from school. This is such a serious concern and fifty years ago such a thing occurring on a school bus would have been unthinkable.

There have also been incidents where small children have been accidentally left on the school bus in the morning after the run has been made. It is the responsibility of a bus driver to walk the entire length of the bus after each route has been finished to make sure there is no one left on the bus. Evidently this is not a practice all bus drivers care to make sure they do because when the bus is taken to a temporary parking place until the afternoon route, they were surprised to find a small child had fallen asleep in the morning and had been left on the bus all alone for the entire day. This can be a very dangerous and scary situation when a five or six year old wakes up all alone and is made to sit for hours in hunger and sometimes cold or very hot temperatures in a closed up and empty bus.

Even though the aid of cameras have been installed in many school buses around the country, these types of incidents are still continuing to rise overall. Parents need to take the time to get to know their child’s school bus driver and find out how responsible they might be. Be sure to ask your child about what is going on their school bus and if there are any suspicious things happening that they tell you about, take it to the school principal or even the school board to make sure your child’s bus ride is as safe as possible.

3 P's to Relieve Parent Stress While Travelling With Kids, Toddlers, and Young Children

Traveling with “little ones” can be one of the most joyous events of all-it can also be one of the most stressful. Parent stress is usually high when traveling with small children or toddlers as children in this age bracket have multiple needs, short attention spans and are easily bored or agitated when cooped up for a long time. Traveling with children can be stressful, but with enough preparation and forethought you can ensure a relatively tears-free trip, for both you and your child.

Here are the 3 P’s to prepare you before traveling and alleviate parent stress:

Plan:
Planning… Planning… Planning, there is no escape from this. If adventurous, unplanned holidays gave you a high in the past remember one thing – they have to be forgotten when you have kids – else you will only create more parent stress. There are ways to reduce anxiety when traveling with little children, though it takes meticulous planning in advance and flexibility during the trip. Planning involves:
o deciding where to go to,
o how to go,
o what to do and know about the place you are visiting and
o how to be prepared for the travel.

For deciding where to go, ask your travel agent for family-friendly suggestions. See your doctor about vaccinations beforehand. The most important step is to decide how to travel. Take all the pros and cons of different modes of travel before deciding the mode of travel. Depending on the mode of travel, plan for stuff like breaks, overnight stays, availability of airport transit facilities etc so that you and your child are comfortable.

An important tip to relieve parent stress while traveling is to ensure that you have enough rest breaks. Do not jam-pack the trip with lots of activities; have days of relaxing so that your children do not feel very tired. Keeping your trip as simple as you can and it will reduce the number of problems.

Prepare:
Once you are through with planning a trip the next step is to prepare for the trip. This step involves actually mentally, physically and emotionally preparing you for the trip. Once you have decided on the place to travel and the mode of transport you will need to prepare for the following:

o How do you prepare for the place you are visiting?
o What sort of accommodation you want?
o What to bear in mind and prepare depending on the mode of travel?
o What do you need to carry with you?

Preparing for the place you are traveling requires you to know about the facilities that the place provides like supermarkets, availability of key food and hygiene brands required for your child, availability of medical care, what to avoid eating and drinking, where to avoid visiting etc. This research will help you to be better prepared for the trip and you would know what to expect.

The most important preparation is for the mode of transport. If you are traveling by air or train remember to:
o Purchase an extra ticket if you can afford, else request an aisle seat, which can give you more mobility and quicker access to your seat when boarding and de-boarding. Also, in case of air travel ask for bulkhead seats or seats near an exit to give your child a safe spot to play on the floor.
o Schedule the flight during night so that your baby sleeps most of the time.
o Allow more time for security checks, getting to the gates or your platform at the station, and unexpected events.
o Bring nutritious snacks for your kids and for yourself; you don’t want to be caught hungry with no food options in sight.

When traveling by car:
o Use appropriate restraints, such as seat-belts or car seats.
o Don’t stack items in a way that they fall all over if you have to brake suddenly.
o Use shade cloth to keep the sun from shining in your child’s face or wear sunscreen.
o Be prepared for plenty of toilet and rest stops are taken to reduce motion sickness. This needs to be planned in the travel. Also check with your doctor on the drugs you can give to your child to reduce motion sickness.

The last step in preparation is to decide what you should carry with you when you travel. Here the key tips are:
o First aid box containing items such as baby paracetamol, thermometer, anti-itching lotion, oral re-hydration preparation and band-aids. Also pack sunscreen, hats and insect repellent.
o Take sterilizing equipment if your child is bottle-fed.
o Pack, lots of toys that keep your child busy and not bored. Also avoid too much of sharing between kids, which can lead to quarrels.
o Prepare to carry loads of nutritious snacks and food when going out for sight seeing.
o Take your own stroller or pram, even though it is bulky.
o Take some familiar items from home – blanket, stuffed toy – this will keep your child occupied and give them some comfort.

Pursue:
The final step to relieving Parent Stress, while traveling is to pursue your plan and execute on it when you are on vacation. Before you even embark on your travel, if the baby is sick, postpone the travel – if they get sick during the travel try and cut the travel short. Actually visit the doctor and get all vaccinations and clear all doubts regarding the place you are visiting.

Before traveling, to help pack for the trip and to keep your child’s various supplies organized, it might be a good idea to make a personalized travel box for each child. If traveling by air, feed your baby or child when starting and towards end of the trip, as the frequent swallowing can help prevent the build-up of pressure inside the ears. Encourage your child to drink plenty of fluids to reduce the risk of dehydration. During the flight, stick to smaller and more frequent feedings. Also supervise flight attendants when they heat your meals for the child.

If traveling by car, make sure your child eats something before traveling, but avoid heavy or greasy foods. Entice your child to look out the window by pointing to several things along the way. Also try and have a few surprises up your sleeve, like a travel toy or game that can be opened only after you begin your travel. This will avoid boredom in travel for kids especially when doing long haul flights or long road/train journeys.

Once on holidays, take all precautions when visiting new places – like not leaving the child unattended, being vigilant about the potential dangers of unfamiliar places, such as not fenced swimming pools or balconies. Try to keep a little bit of familiar mealtime routine so that the kids do not get cranky. Ring ahead and check out for availability of children’s menu to avoid surprises and for younger kids prepare them to eat “jarred” or “tinned” baby food as fresh food might not always be available. Wherever possible, use disposable items and use any babysitting facilities at your hotel so you can have a break.

The most important thing, however, is to be flexible! Your baby won’t be able to have the same sleeps, so if you think the baby is tired, take a day off. Use the extra days you have planned to relax and don’t pack them with more travel.

For kids above five years, you can allow them to choose some items to pack or provide them with a choice of seat or allow them to move around the platform or terminal while waiting for next train or flight. This will help them gain a sense of control in the experience and they will be lot better behaved and less bored. Finally maintain a cool head during the trip. Remember to focus your attention on the trip itself and all the fun that comes with it, rather than on the hassles of travel as these hassles are short lived. This way you can have a wonderful time with your family.

Emo Fashion of the Present

Emo fashion has changed over the years. While there are some basic generalizations across the board, the emo fashion style has changed from a pretty tight dress code to a much more relaxed style that encompasses a variety of different elements.

It’s still a popular trend among emos to flat iron their hair as straight as humanly possible. The dramatic side swooping band covering one eye is no longer a huge trend in the emo culture, though many still have long bands going across one side of the face. A few additional hairstyles have been added to the repertoire of guy emo hairstyles, like spiking the back of the hair. The female emo hairstyle hasn’t changed much and still retains its Elvira like appearance.

While many emos still dye their hair black, it’s no longer a hardcore requirement for the style. There are quite a few emos out there that dye their hair platinum blonde instead. It seems to have become more about how you wear your hair than what color your hair is. The newest hot female emo hair accessory is multi-colored hair extensions. In fact, coloring part of your hair a radical color was quite the trend for a while.

Fewer emo guys wear guy liner now than when the emo trend originally became popular. Like many of the original emo fashion trends it has faded into the background.

Tight clothing is still very much in style with the emo culture, though much of it has taken a more modern look. Stripes are popular in emo fashion as well as stars, hearts, skulls, nautical stars, and sparrows. Emo females typically wear more trendy fashion as opposed to the original vintage style.

Piercings have also seen an expanded horizon. Many emos have gone from a single lip piercing to snake bites. Hip piercing has also recently become popular.

There’s really no telling how much more the emo fashion style will evolve. Unlike many other fashion styles the stability of emo culture changes as time passes. Some imagine that it will fade out completely with time. Until it does though, it will certainly be interesting to keep an eye on the rising and falling trends

Top Reasons To Look Into Party Bus Rentals

Planning a big night on the town can turn into a big pain in the neck when more than a few people are involved. Between selecting where to go and what to do, few adults have the time to think about who will serve as the designated driver or drivers. When party bus rentals are considered, this concern is eliminated and quite a few other perks are delivered, as well.

Looking into party bus rentals makes sense for everything from prom night to bachelor parties and beyond. Whether the party is in Los Angeles, Las Vegas or elsewhere, these buses can really help ensure the fun continues without any hassle.

Some of the top reasons to look into party bus rentals for small-to-medium-sized parties include:

· Convenience. It is often much easier to look into party bus rentals than to try and figure out who will do the driving. When these services are used, it is even possible to make arrangements for everyone in the party to be picked up and then dropped back off at their own homes at the end of the evening. It doesn’t get easier than that.

· Onboard entertainment. The rules of the road for drinking in regard to party bus rentals might vary from state to state, but the fact of the matter is the fun can continue en route. With many party bus rentals offering onboard restrooms, TV/DVD combos and rather nice sound systems, getting there can be half the fun.

· Professional drivers. Party bus rentals always come with professional drivers at the wheel. This takes worry out of the proposition and puts the burden of dealing with traffic on a pro who knows how to handle the job. In big cities like Los Angeles and Las Vegas, this can be a real big hassle that’s instantly removed. In some cases, party bus rentals come with drivers who also know how to jazz up the ride by providing tour information, onboard entertainment and more.

· Logistical simplicity. It is infinitely easier to put an entire party onto a bus and have everyone stay together at multiple stops along the way. When party bus rentals are used, everyone arrives at the same time.

· Economical. In most cases, it is very economical to look at party bus rentals versus driving a number of private vehicles. When the hassles that are removed from a party are considered, the cost savings really can amount to a lot.

· Safer. When adults are looking at party bus rentals for big occasions, it is generally just plain smart and a whole lot safer to let someone else drive. This ensures that everyone can have a good time and leave the concerns about drinking behind. When door-to-door service is added into the mix, the benefits really add up.

Party bus rentals in California, Georgia and elsewhere make a great deal of sense for small parties and large. When getting there is half the fun, these rentals can very much shine.

Prenuptial Agreements – The Before Marriage Divorce Contract

A prenuptial agreement, also called a “pre-nup”, or “premarital agreement”, is an agreement made by couples planning to get married. The pre-nup governs how issues such as dividing marital assets, and alimony will be dealt with if the marriage should end in a divorce.

Without a prenuptial or post-nuptial agreement, a divorced couple’s property will be divided and any maintenance awarded in accordance with Nevada statutes and case law. Any couple looking to save themselves from the circus called, divorce court, should seriously consider a pre-nup. Such an agreement is especially important if one or both parties are on their second or subsequent marriage, if they have children from a previous marriage, or have significant personal assets which they do not want to be subject to the whims of a family court judge.

Are Prenuptial Agreements Enforceable in Divorce Court?

Yes, unless there are defects in their negotiation or content. Originally, most states would not enforce prenuptial agreements because they felt such agreements were “in derogation of marriage”, meaning the agreements work against the principle of married for life. However, in the early seventies, following other states, Nevada held prenuptial agreements to be generally enforceable in, Buettner v. Buettner, 1973. So your agreement will be enforceable if it is properly done.

Why Draft a Prenup?

The most important reason to draft a pre-nup is to save you time and money, if your marriage ends in divorce. By agreeing to terms now, when you love each other, the divorce tends to run simpler, when the bliss has worn off. With a prenuptial agreement you know how things are going to be divided. Giving you peace of mind and costing you drastically less money in divorce attorney fees.

Pre-nups are not romantic. Approaching the conversation is a buzz kill. Most couples find it difficult to discuss the ending of a marriage. You’re in love, and going to be married forever. Why would you need a divorce agreement? Because like life, divorce happens. You have less of a chance of finding your home on fire, and yet you buy home insurance. Signing a pre-nup is not dooming your marriage. Many couples feel siging a pre-nup solidifies each other’s marriage commitments.

What’s in a Prenuptial Agreement?

In 1989, Nevada adopted the Uniform Premarital Agreements Act (UPAA), which can be found in the Nevada Revised Statutes at Title 123A. Under the UPAA, parties to a prenuptial agreement are allowed to agree with regard to:

1. Rights of property which the parties already have or might acquire during the marriage;
2. Any rights to buy, sell, lease or mortgage such property;
3. The disposition of property upon separation, divorce, or death of one of the parties;
4. Alimony; and
5. Any other rights and obligations of the parties which are allowed to be governed by private contract, i.e. are not governed by statute.

Separate property is the main focus of most prenuptial agreements. If you are coming into a marriage with real estate, retirement accounts, or cash, you might want to keep these assets separate from your community property. Community property is divided equally if a divorce happens. Separate property is not divided. A pre-nup often includes a waiver by both parties of any rights in property the other spouse acquired before the marriage. This is important if you who wish to preserve the assets they bring into a marriage.

Couples can also agree that property acquired by one partner after the marriage, which would ordinarily become community property, will remain the separate property of that spouse. For example, you might be halfway to earning a huge bonus, stock options, or maybe a future book deal. By agreeing these assets are to remain separate property you limit this argument in court.

A pre-nup may include language about limiting alimony (aka spousal support) in the case of a divorce. We are even seeing an increase in “fidelity clauses” being linked to spousal support. If a spouse has an affair the spousal support can be limited or increased, depending on your wishes. However, if the elimination or modification of alimony for a spouse results in that spouse needing public assistance, a court may disregard this portion of the agreement.

Two subjects of major concern to many couples contemplating marriage cannot be governed by prenuptial agreements: child custody and child support. By Nevada law, a court must decide these matters based on the standard of the best interests of the child and specific factors at the time of the decision. A premarital agreement signed before children are born would be unable to discuss the future factors. So, any private agreement between the parties on these subjects will not be binding.

When are Pre-Nups Not Enforced?

Prenuptial agreements are contracts between spouses. Like all contracts, in order to be binding, an agreement must be entered into by both parties knowingly and without any coercion, duress or fraud. Because of the closeness of the relationship between engaged persons, courts scrutinize prenuptial agreements especially closely.

First, the agreement must be entered into voluntarily. This means the agreement is not valid if one of the parties executed it under “duress,” a legal term meaning “pressure.” Agreements are often executed under some type of pressure; therefore, not every type of pressure will constitute duress.

While threats of physical violence or blackmail would clearly constitute duress, time between signing the agreement and the wedding date is the biggest culprit. Courts will void a pre-nup because the bride felt pressure to sign a pre-nup three days before the wedding. The typical cause being the emotional stress of having to cancel the wedding, and explain to hundreds of guests why the wedding was canceled. It’s not a gun to the head, but just as scary for some.

The threat of calling off the wedding is not always enough to be duress. Most courts reason that a party has a legal right to call off a wedding at any time. The courts look for other factors such as the unavailability of legal counsel for one spouse, or a one-sided agreement. For more examples of what constitutes duress, see “Voluntary Consent in Prenuptial Agreements”.

It is advisable for couples to allow plenty of time to negotiate and draft an agreement. To avoid the issue of duress being raised in the event of a divorce, couples should again allow several weeks, and even a month or so before the wedding date, for the process of negotiating and executing the agreement. Each side should also consult their own attorney.

Second, the agreement must be entered into “knowingly.” The UPAA requires that both parties be provided a “fair and reasonable disclosure” of the property and financial obligations of the other party. This means that income, real property, bank accounts, investments and all debts must be disclosed. This requirement underscores the advisability of allowing adequate time for consideration of the agreement.

The Nevada Supreme Court has held that where the husband failed to make the disclosures necessary to permit the wife to make an informed decision with respect to the premarital agreement, the agreement is invalid, Fick v. Fick, 1993. The court held that an incomplete list of the husband’s assets, given to the wife shortly before the wedding, and on the basis of which the wife signed the prenuptial agreement, did not constitute full disclosure.

Third, the agreement must be entered into without the presence of fraud. Fraud occurs when a party deliberately or negligently misleads the other party. Obviously, deliberately misstating or concealing one’s financial information would constitute fraud. However, as stated above prenuptial agreements are held to a higher degree of scrutiny than regular commercial contracts; courts require a high degree of honesty on the part of each party, called a fiduciary duty to the other party. Therefore, if the resulting agreement is excessively one-sided, courts will presume the existence of fraud, and, unless this presumption is rebutted in court, will invalidate the agreement.

In Sogg v. Nevada State Bank, the Nevada Supreme Court concluded that a premarital agreement would be presumed fraudulent where it left a wife with no resources or means of support in the event of a divorce, and where the wife probably would have received more under the community property laws of Nevada were it not for the premarital agreement.

The presumption may be overcome by a showing that the party claiming disadvantage was not in fact disadvantaged. Factors to consider include whether the disadvantaged party (1) had ample opportunity to obtain the advice of an independent attorney, (2) was not coerced into making a rash decision by circumstances, (3) had substantial business experience and acumen, and (4) was aware of the financial resources of the other party and understood the rights that were being forfeited.

The court in Sogg, held that where the premarital agreement was drafted by the husband’s attorney, the wife was never given an opportunity to obtain the assistance of her own counsel, was not given a copy of the agreement until the morning of the wedding, and the wife’s business experience was scanty. The court held that the presumption of fraud was not overcome, and the agreement was invalid.
Fair Pre-Nups

A contract is “unconscionable” if it is so one-sided as to be fundamentally unfair. In some states, a prenuptial agreement will be upheld even if it is one-sided and is a bad bargain for one of the parties, as long as it is made voluntarily and with full disclosure by each party. However, the Nevada Supreme Court doesn’t lean this way. In the Fick case, the court took into account the results of the agreement. It invalidated the agreement partly because the agreement eliminated alimony for the wife, which she would have been entitled to, and gave the wife much less community property than she would have received under community property laws. This indicates that Nevada courts will look at the substantive outcome of an agreement in determining fairness and validity.

It is apparent the reasons prenuptial agreements will be rendered unenforceable tend to overlap. In practice, facts which indicate there was not adequate disclosure by a party or which indicate the presence of duress may also be used to find fraud, unconscionably, etc. The overall lesson for couples is therefore: allow sufficient time for negotiation; have separate divorce lawyers available for both parties, disclose all assets, financial information and anything else the other party might reasonably want to know, and to attempt to treat the other spouse as fairly possible.

Banking Fraud – Prevention and Control

Banking Fraud is posing threat to Indian Economy. Its vibrant effect can be understood be the fact that in the year 2004 number of Cyber Crime were 347 in India which rose to 481 in 2005 showing an increase of 38.5% while I.P.C. category crime stood at 302 in 2005 including 186 cases of cyber fraud and 68 cases cyber forgery. Thus it becomes very important that occurrence of such frauds should be minimized. More upsetting is the fact that such frauds are entering in Banking Sector as well.

In the present day, Global Scenario Banking System has acquired new dimensions. Banking did spread in India. Today, the banking system has entered into competitive markets in areas covering resource mobilization, human resource development, customer services and credit management as well.

Indian’s banking system has several outstanding achievements to its credit, the most striking of which is its reach. In fact, Indian banks are now spread out into the remotest areas of our country. Indian banking, which was operating in a highly comfortable and protected environment till the beginning of 1990s, has been pushed into the choppy waters of intense competition.

A sound banking system should possess three basic characteristics to protect depositor’s interest and public faith. Theses are (i) a fraud free culture, (ii) a time tested Best Practice Code, and (iii) an in house immediate grievance remedial system. All these conditions are their missing or extremely weak in India. Section 5(b) of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 defines banking… “Banking is the accepting for the purpose of lending or investment, deposits of money from the purpose of lending or investment, deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdraw able by cheque, draft, order or otherwise.” But if his money has fraudulently been drawn from the bank the latter is under strict obligation to pay the depositor. The bank therefore has to ensure at all times that the money of the depositors is not drawn fraudulently. Time has come when the security aspects of the banks have to be dealt with on priority basis.

The banking system in our country has been taking care of all segments of our socioeconomic set up. The Article contains a discussion on the rise of banking frauds and various methods that can be used to avoid such frauds. A bank fraud is a deliberate act of omission or commission by any person carried out in the course of banking transactions or in the books of accounts, resulting in wrongful gain to any person for a temporary period or otherwise, with or without any monetary loss to the bank. The relevant provisions of Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Contract Act, and Negotiable Instruments Act relating to banking frauds has been cited in the present Article.

EVOLUTION OF BANKING SYSTEM IN INDIA

Banking system occupies an important place in a nation’s economy. A banking institution is indispensable in a modern society. It plays a pivotal role in economic development of a country and forms the core of the money market in an advanced country.

Banking industry in India has traversed a long way to assume its present stature. It has undergone a major structural transformation after the nationalization of 14 major commercial banks in 1969 and 6 more on 15 April 1980. The Indian banking system is unique and perhaps has no parallels in the banking history of any country in the world.

RESERVE BANK OF INDIA-ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OBJECTIVE

The Reserve Bank of India has an important role to play in the maintenance of the exchange value of the rupee in view of the close interdependence of international trade and national economic growth and well being. This aspect is of the wider responsibly of the central bank for the maintenance of economic and financial stability. For this the bank is entrusted with the custody and the management of country’s international reserves; it acts also as the agent of the government in respect of India’s membership of the international monetary fund. With economic development the bank also performs a variety of developmental and promotional functions which in the past were registered being outside the normal purview of central banking. It also acts an important regulator.

BANK FRAUDS: CONCEPT AND DIMENSIONS

Banks are the engines that drive the operations in the financial sector, which is vital for the economy. With the nationalization of banks in 1969, they also have emerged as engines for social change. After Independence, the banks have passed through three stages. They have moved from the character based lending to ideology based lending to today competitiveness based lending in the context of India’s economic liberalization policies and the process of linking with the global economy.

While the operations of the bank have become increasingly significant banking frauds in banks are also increasing and fraudsters are becoming more and more sophisticated and ingenious. In a bid to keep pace with the changing times, the banking sector has diversified it business manifold. And the old philosophy of class banking has been replaced by mass banking. The challenge in management of social responsibility with economic viability has increased.

DEFINITION OF FRAUD

Fraud is defined as “any behavior by which one person intends to gain a dishonest advantage over another”. In other words , fraud is an act or omission which is intended to cause wrongful gain to one person and wrongful loss to the other, either by way of concealment of facts or otherwise.

Fraud is defined u/s 421 of the Indian Penal Code and u/s 17 of the Indian Contract Act. Thus essential elements of frauds are:

1. There must be a representation and assertion;

2. It must relate to a fact;

3. It must be with the knowledge that it is false or without belief in its truth; and

4. It must induce another to act upon the assertion in question or to do or not to do certain act.

BANK FRAUDS

Losses sustained by banks as a result of frauds exceed the losses due to robbery, dacoity, burglary and theft-all put together. Unauthorized credit facilities are extended for illegal gratification such as case credit allowed against pledge of goods, hypothecation of goods against bills or against book debts. Common modus operandi are, pledging of spurious goods, inletting the value of goods, hypothecating goods to more than one bank, fraudulent removal of goods with the knowledge and connivance of in negligence of bank staff, pledging of goods belonging to a third party. Goods hypothecated to a bank are found to contain obsolete stocks packed in between goods stocks and case of shortage in weight is not uncommon.

An analysis made of cases brings out broadly the under mentioned four major elements responsible for the commission of frauds in banks.

1. Active involvement of the staff-both supervisor and clerical either independent of external elements or in connivance with outsiders.

2. Failure on the part of the bank staff to follow meticulously laid down instructions and guidelines.

3. External elements perpetuating frauds on banks by forgeries or manipulations of cheques, drafts and other instruments.

4. There has been a growing collusion between business, top banks executives, civil servants and politicians in power to defraud the banks, by getting the rules bent, regulations flouted and banking norms thrown to the winds.

FRAUDS-PREVENTION AND DETECTION

A close study of any fraud in bank reveals many common basic features. There may have been negligence or dishonesty at some stage, on part of one or more of the bank employees. One of them may have colluded with the borrower. The bank official may have been putting up with the borrower’s sharp practices for a personal gain. The proper care which was expected of the staff, as custodians of banks interest may not have been taken. The bank’s rules and procedures laid down in the Manual instructions and the circulars may not have been observed or may have been deliberately ignored.

Bank frauds are the failure of the banker. It does not mean that the external frauds do not defraud banks. But if the banker is upright and knows his job, the task of defrauder will become extremely difficult, if not possible.

Detection of Frauds

Despite all care and vigilance there may still be some frauds, though their number, periodicity and intensity may be considerably reduced. The following procedure would be very helpful if taken into consideration:

1. All relevant data-papers, documents etc. Should be promptly collected. Original vouchers or other papers forming the basis of the investigation should be kept under lock and key.

2. All persons in the bank who may be knowing something about the time, place a modus operandi of the fraud should be examined and their statements should be recorded.

3. The probable order of events should thereafter be reconstructed by the officer, in his own mind.

4. It is advisable to keep the central office informed about the fraud and further developments in regard thereto.

Classification of Frauds and Action Required by Banks

The Reserve Bank of India had set-up a high level committee in 1992 which was headed by Mr. A… Ghosh, the then Dy. Governor Reserve Bank of India to inquire into various aspects relating to frauds malpractice in banks. The committee had noticed/observed three major causes for perpetration of fraud as given hereunder:

1. Laxity in observance of the laid down system and procedures by operational and supervising staff.

2. Over confidence reposed in the clients who indulged in breach of trust.

3. Unscrupulous clients by taking advantages of the laxity in observance of established, time tested safeguards also committed frauds.

In order to have uniformity in reporting cases of frauds, RBI considered the question of classification of bank frauds on the basis of the provisions of the IPC.
Given below are the Provisions and their Remedial measures that can be taken.

1. Cheating (Section 415, IPC)

Remedial Measures.

The preventive measures in respect of the cheating can be concentrated on cross-checking regarding identity, genuineness, verification of particulars, etc. in respect of various instruments as well as persons involved in encashment or dealing with the property of the bank.

2. Criminal misappropriation of property (Section 403 IPC).

Remedial Measure

Criminal misappropriation of property, presuppose the custody or control of funds or property, so subjected, with that of the person committing such frauds. Preventive measures, for this class of fraud should be taken at the level the custody or control of the funds or property of the bank generally vests. Such a measure should be sufficient, it is extended to these persons who are actually handling or having actual custody or control of the fund or movable properties of the bank.

3. Criminal breach of trust (Section 405, IPC)

Remedial Measure

Care should be taken from the initial step when a person comes to the bank. Care needs to be taken at the time of recruitment in bank as well.

4. Forgery (Section 463, IPC)

Remedial Measure

Both the prevention and detection of frauds through forgery are important for a bank. Forgery of signatures is the most frequent fraud in banking business. The bank should take special care when the instrument has been presented either bearer or order; in case a bank pays forged instrument he would be liable for the loss to the genuine costumer.

5. Falsification of accounts (Section 477A)

Remedial Measure

Proper diligence is required while filling of forms and accounts. The accounts should be rechecked on daily basis.

6. Theft (Section 378, IPC)

Remedial Measures

Encashment of stolen’ cheque can be prevented if the bank clearly specify the age, sex and two visible identify action marks on the body of the person traveler’s cheques on the back of the cheque leaf. This will help the paying bank to easily identify the cheque holder. Theft from lockers and safe deposit vaults are not easy to commit because the master-key remains with the banker and the individual key of the locker is handed over to the costumer with due acknowledgement.

7. Criminal conspiracy (Section 120 A, IPC)

In the case of State of Andhra Pradesh v. IBS Prasad Rao and Other, the accused, who were clerks in a cooperative Central Bank were all convicted of the offences of cheating under Section 420 read along with Section 120 A. all the four accused had conspired together to defraud the bank by making false demand drafts and receipt vouchers.

8. Offences relating to currency notes and banks notes (Section 489 A-489E, IPC)
These sections provide for the protection of currency-notes and bank notes from forgery. The offences under section are:

(a) Counterfeiting currency notes or banks.

(b) Selling, buying or using as genuine, forged or counterfeit currency notes or bank notes. Knowing the same to be forged or counterfeit.

(c) Possession of forged or counterfeit currency notes or bank-notes, knowing or counterfeit and intending to use the same as genuine.

(d) Making or passing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting currency notes or banks.

(e) Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank notes.

Most of the above provisions are Cognizable Offenses under Section 2(c) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

FRAUD PRONE AREAS IN DIFFERENT ACCOUNTS

The following are the potential fraud prone areas in Banking Sector. In addition to those areas I have also given kinds of fraud that are common in these areas.

Savings Bank Accounts

The following are some of the examples being played in respect of savings bank accounts:

(a) Cheques bearing the forged signatures of depositors may be presented and paid.

(b) Specimen signatures of the depositors may be changed, particularly after the death of depositors,

(c) Dormant accounts may be operated by dishonest persons with or without collusion of bank employees, and

(d) Unauthorized withdrawals from customer’s accounts by employee of the bank maintaining the savings ledger and later destruction of the recent vouchers by them.

Current Account Fraud

The following types are likely to be committed in case of current accounts.

(a) Opening of frauds in the names of limited companies or firms by unauthorized persons;

(b) Presentation and payment of cheques bearing forged signatures;

(c) Breach of trust by the employees of the companies or firms possessing cheque leaves duly signed by the authorized signatures;

(d) Fraudulent alteration of the amount of the cheques and getting it paid either at the counter or though another bank.

Frauds In Case Of Advances

Following types may be committed in respect of advances:

(a) Spurious gold ornaments may be pledged.

(b) Sub-standard goods may be pledged with the bank or their value may be shown at inflated figures.
(c) Same goods may be hypothecated in favour of different banks.

LEGAL REGIME TO CONTROL BANK FRAUDS

Frauds constitute white-collar crime, committed by unscrupulous persons deftly advantage of loopholes existing in systems/procedures. The ideal situation is one there is no fraud, but taking ground realities of the nation’s environment and human nature’s fragility, an institution should always like to keep the overreach of frauds at the minimum occurrence level.

Following are the relevant sections relating to Bank Frauds

Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860)

(a) Section 23 “Wrongful gain”.-

“Wrongful gain” is gain by unlawful means of property to which the person gaining is not legally entitled.

(b) “Wrongful loss”

“Wrongful loss” is the loss by unlawful means of property to which the person losing it is legally entitled.
(c) Gaining wrongfully.

Losing wrongfully-A person is said to gain wrongfully when such person retains wrongfully, as well as when such person acquires wrongfully. A person is said to lose wrongfully when such person is wrongfully kept out of any property, as well as when such person is wrongfully deprived of property.

(d) Section 24. “Dishonestly”

Whoever does anything with the intention of causing wrongful gain to one person or wrongful loss to another person, is said to do that thing “dishonestly”.

(e) Section 28. “Counterfeit”

A person is said to “counterfeit” who causes one thing to resemble another thing, intending by means of that resemblance to practice deception, or knowing it to be likely that deception will thereby be practiced.

BREACH OF TRUST

1. Section 408- Criminal breach of trust by clerk or servant.

2. Section 409- Criminal breach of trust by public servant, or by banker, merchant or agent.

3. Section 416- Cheating by personating

4. Section 419- Punishment for cheating by personation.

OFFENSES RELATING TO DOCUMENTS

1) Section 463-Forgery

2) Section 464 -Making a false document

3) Section 465- Punishment for forgery.

4) Section 467- Forgery of valuable security, will, etc

5) Section 468- Forgery for purpose of cheating

6) Section 469- Forgery for purpose of harming reputation

7) Section 470- Forged document.

8) Section 471- Using as genuine a forged document

9) Section 477- Fraudulent cancellation, destruction, etc., of will, authority to adopt, or valuable security.

10) Section 477A- Falsification of accounts.

THE RESERVE BANK OF INDIA ACT, 1934

Issue of demand bills and notes Section 31.

Provides that only Bank and except provided by Central Government shall be authorized to draw, accept, make or issue any bill of exchange, hundi, promissory note or engagement for the payment of money payable to bearer on demand, or borrow, owe or take up any sum or sums of money on the bills, hundis or notes payable to bearer on demand of any such person

THE NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ACT, 1881

Holder’s right to duplicate of lost bill Section 45A.

1. The finder of lost bill or note acquires no title to it. The title remains with the true owner. He is entitled to recover from the true owner.

2. If the finder obtains payment on a lost bill or note in due course, the payee may be able to get a valid discharge for it. But the true owner can recover the money due on the instrument as damages from the finder.

Section 58

When an Instrument is obtained by unlawful means or for unlawful consideration no possessor or endorse who claims through the person who found or so obtained the instrument is entitled to receive the amount due thereon from such maker, accept or holder, or from any party prior to such holder, unless such possessor or endorse is, or some person through whom he claims was, a holder thereof in due course.

Section 85:

Cheque payable to order.

1. By this section, bankers are placed in privileged position. It provides that if an order cheque is endorsed by or on behalf of the payee, and the banker on whom it is drawn pays it in due course, the banker is discharged. He can debit his customer with the amount so paid, though the endorsement of the payee might turn out to be a forgery.

2. The claim protection under this section the banker has to prove that the payment was a payment in due course, in good faith and without negligence.

Section 87. Effect of material alteration

Under this section any alteration made without the consent of party would be void. Alteration would be valid only if is made with common intention of the party.

Section 138. Dishonour of cheque for insufficiency, etc., of funds in the account.

Where any cheque drawn by a person on an account maintained by him with a banker for payment of any amount of money to another person from out of that account for the discharge, in whole or in part, of any debt or other liability, is returned by the bank unpaid. either because of the amount of money standing to the credit of that account is insufficient to honor the cheque or that it exceeds the amount arranged to be paid from that account by an agreement made with that bank, such person shall be deemed to have committed an offense and shall, without prejudice.

Section 141(1) Offenses by companies.

If the person committing an offense under Section 138 is a company, every person who, at the time the offense was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offense and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

SECURITY REGIME IN BANKING SYSTEM

Security implies sense of safety and of freedom from danger or anxiety. When a banker takes a collateral security, say in the form of gold or a title deed, against the money lent by him, he has a sense of safety and of freedom from anxiety about the possible non-payment of the loan by the borrower. These should be communicated to all strata of the organization through appropriate means. Before staff managers should analyze current practices. Security procedure should be stated explicitly and agreed upon by each user in the specific environment. Such practices ensure information security and enhance availability. Bank security is essentially a defense against unforced attacks by thieves, dacoits and burglars.

PHYSICAL SECURITY MEASURES-CONCEPT

A large part of banks security depends on social security measures. Physical security measures can be defined as those specific and special protective or defensive measures adopted to deter, detect, delay, defend and defeat or to perform any one or more of these functions against culpable acts, both covert and covert and acclamation natural events. The protective or defensive, measures adopted involve construction, installation and deployment of structures, equipment and persons respectively.

The following are few guidelines to check malpractices:

1. To rotate the cash work within the staff.

2. One person should not continue on the same seat for more than two months.

3. Daybook should not be written by the Cashier where an other person is available to the job

4. No cash withdrawal should be allowed within passbook in case of withdrawal by pay order.

5. The branch manager should ensure that all staff members have recorder their presence in the attendance registrar, before starting work.

Execution of Documents

1. A bank officer must adopt a strict professional approach in the execution of documents. The ink and the pen used for the execution must be maintained uniformly.

2. Bank documents should not be typed on a typewriter for execution. These should be invariably handwritten for execution.

3. The execution should always be done in the presence of the officer responsible for obtain them,
4. The borrowers should be asked to sign in full signatures in same style throughout the documents.

5. Unless there is a specific requirement in the document, it should not be got attested or witnessed as such attestation may change the character of the instruments and the documents may subject to ad volrem stamp duty.

6. The paper on which the bank documents are made should be pilfer proof. It should be unique and available to the banks only.

7. The printing of the bank documents should have highly artistic intricate and complex graphics.

8. The documents executed between Banker and Borrowers must be kept in safe custody,

CHANGES IN LEGISLATION AFTER ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS

1. Section 91 of IPC shall be amended to include electronic documents also.

2. Section 92 of Indian Evidence Act, 1872 shall be amended to include commuter based communications

3. Section 93 of Bankers Book Evidence Act, 1891 has been amended to give legal sanctity for books of account maintained in the electronic form by the banks.

4. Section 94 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1939 shall be amended to facilitate electronic fund transfers between the financial institutions and the banks. A new clause (pp) has been inserted in Section 58(2).

RECENT TRENDS OF BANKING SYSTEM IN INDIA

In the banking and financial sectors, the introduction of electronic technology for transactions, settlement of accounts, book-keeping and all other related functions is now an imperative. Increasingly, whether we like it or not, all banking transactions are going to be electronic. The thrust is on commercially important centers, which account for 65 percent of banking business in terms of value. There are now a large number of fully computerized branches across the country.

A switchover from cash-based transactions to paper-based transactions is being accelerated. Magnetic Ink character recognition clearing of cheques is now operational in many cities, beside the four metro cities. In India, the design, management and regulation of electronically-based payments system are becoming the focus of policy deliberations. The imperatives of developing an effective, efficient and speedy payment and settlement systems are getting sharper with introduction of new instruments such as credit cards, telebanking, ATMs, retail Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and Electronic Clearing Services (ECS). We are moving towards smart cards, credit and financial Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for straight through processing.

Financial Fraud (Investigation, Prosecution, Recovery and Restoration of property) Bill, 2001

Further the Financial Fraud (Investigation, Prosecution, Recovery and Restoration of property) Bill, 2001 was introduced in Parliament to curb the menace of Bank Fraud. The Act was to prohibit, control, investigate financial frauds; recover and restore properties subject to such fraud; prosecute for causing financial fraud and matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Under the said act the term Financial Fraud has been defined as under:

Section 512 – Financial Fraud

Financial frauds means and includes any of the following acts committed by a person or with his connivance, or by his agent, in his dealings with any bank or financial institution or any other entity holding public funds;

1. The suggestion, as a fact, of that which is not true, by one who does not believe it to be true;

2. The active concealment of a fact by one having knowledge or belief of the fact;

3. A promise made with out any intention of performing it;

4. Any other act fitted to deceive;

5. Any such act or omission as the law specially declares to be fraudulent.
Provided that whoever acquires, possesses or transfers any proceeds of financial fraud or enters into any transaction which is related to proceeds of fraud either directly or indirectly or conceals or aids in the concealment of the proceeds of financial fraud, commits financial fraud.

513(a) – Punishment for Financial Fraud

Whoever commits financial fraud shall be: (a) Punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term, which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine.

(b)Whoever commits serious financial fraud shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years but shall not be less than five years and shall also be liable for fine up to double the amount involved in such fraud.

Provided that in both (a) and (b) all funds, bank accounts and properties acquired using such funds subjected to the financial fraud as may reasonably be attributed by the investigating agency shall be recovered and restored to the rightful owner according to the procedure established by law.

CONCLUSION

The Indian Banking Industry has undergone tremendous growth since nationalization of 14 banks in the year 1969. There has an almost eight times increase in the bank branches from about 8000 during 1969 to mote than 60,000 belonging to 289 commercial banks, of which 66 banks are in private sector.

It was the result of two successive Committees on Computerization (Rangarajan Committee) that set the tone for computerization in India. While the first committee drew the blue print in 1983-84 for the mechanization and computerization in banking industry, the second committee set up in 1989 paved the way for integrated use of telecommunications and computers for applying technogical breakthroughs in banking sector.

However, with the spread of banking and banks, frauds have been on a constant increase. It could be a natural corollary to increase in the number of customers who are using banks these days. In the year 2000 alone we have lost Rs 673 crores in as many as 3,072 number of fraud cases. These are only reported figures. Though, this is 0.075% of Rs 8,96,696 crores of total deposits and 0.15% of Rs 4,44,125 crores of loans & advances, there are any numbers of cases that are not reported. There were nearly 65,800 bank branches of a total of 295 commercial banks in India as on June 30, 2001 reporting a total of nearly 3,072 bank fraud cases. This makes nearly 10.4 frauds per bank and roughly 0.47 frauds per branch.

An Expert Committee on Bank Frauds (Chairman: Dr.N.L.Mitra) submitted its Report to RBI in September 2001. The Committee examined and suggested both the preventive and curative aspects of bank frauds.

The important recommendations of the Committee include:

o A need for including financial fraud as a criminal offense;

o Amendments to the IPC by including a new chapter on financial fraud;

o Amendments to the Evidence Act to shift the burden of proof on the accused person;

o Special provision in the Cr. PC for properties involved in the Financial Fraud.

o Confiscating unlawful gains; and preventive measures including the development of Best Code Procedures by banks and financial institutions.

Thus it can be concluded that following measures should necessarily be adopted by the Ministry of Finance in order to reduce cases of Fraud.

o There must be a Special Court to try financial fraud cases of serious nature.

o The law should provide separate structural and recovery procedure. Every bank must have a domestic inquiry officer to enquirer about the civil dimension of fraud.

o A fraud involving an amount of ten crore of rupees and above may be considered serious and be tried in the Special Court.

The Twenty-ninth Report of the Law Commission had dealt some categories of crimes one of which is “offenses calculated to prevent and obstruct the economic development of the country and endanger its economic health.” Offenses relating to Banking Fraud will fall under this category. The most important feature of such offenses is that ordinarily they do not involve an individual direct victim. They are punishable because they harm the whole society. It is clear that money involved in Bank belongs to public. They deposit there whole life’ security in Banks and in case of Dacoity or Robbery in banks the public will be al lost. Thus it is important that sufficient efforts should be taken in this regard.

There exists a new kind of threat in cyber world. Writers are referring it as “Salami Attack” under this a special software is used for transferring the amount from the account of the individual. Hence the culprits of such crimes should be found quickly and should be given strict punishment. Moreover there is requirement of more number of IT professionals who will help in finding a solution against all these security threats.

Practical Home Ideas – Modern Home Furniture

Quality and affordability does not usually come hand in hand in almost all things. For one to get good quality things, most likely he or she needs to spend a lot. But that is not always the case when it comes to furniture. People who do not have that big of a budget now have the chance to still get the design that they want for their homes without going over their budget. A lot of great quality furniture are sold by different furniture shops these days at very reasonable prices. Now that is very good news especially that almost all people are now doing everything they can just to stretch their budgets. Home enhancements are often associated with high expenses. But that could be a thing of the past now that one could buy a stylish and modern bedroom furniture at a very low cost.

Modern home furniture sets come in different designs and even in different colors as well. People can further increase their savings when decorating their homes since making use of these great-looking furniture would no longer require them to buy other expensive decorating materials to enhance the appearance of their homes. Just the furniture themselves would already be enough as a complement to the structure and design of the house. That gives an added benefit for all since functionality could now be combined with style through the use of modern furniture. A simple and modern glass coffee table could be used just like an accessory only that it has more purpose.

Modern furniture is also not that hard to find nowadays since a lot of shops are now selling them. Buyers would have a wide variety of designs to choose from. They get to compare different rates, quality of materials used, and the overall functionality. They also come in a wide variety so there would always be one that would be ideal for all members of the family may it be adults or children, male or female. Different price ranges are also made available so you really do not have to spend much in order to get the right one for your needs. Visit different websites or call different stores to check out what they have and for you to choose and plan which one to get.

Almost any type of sets are available out there in the market so people no need to worry about getting the right one for different parts of the house. There are modern sofas for the living room, different types of cabinets for the kitchen, beds with new designs, and many more. All that you need to do is to invest a little of your time in checking out different furniture available and determine which one would fit your home design. With these benefits offered by modern home furniture, making use of them to complement the design of your home is definitely a great idea. People could now be more practical without sacrificing the design and the quality of their home furniture.

Avail Your Transfer Needs From Taxi Services

Airport taxi service has come a long way since they were incorporated as a part of the system and there is hardly an international traveler that can get by without the airport taxi no matter how sporadic their travel.

Airport transfers are meant to bring the journey to a befitting conclusion while heightening the expectation of the impending trip and with our airport taxi transfers the journey has never so comfortable.

In the 20th century taxis to airports were the most beautiful contraptions you ever saw and although these taxi transfers were effective for the period the client may not have experienced anything out of the ordinary except that they got to the destination in one piece.

History aside our modern fleet offers the client convenient airport transfers and the wide array of taxi van services to choose only serves as a reminder that this taxi transfer is the top-notch.

These airport taxi services are also on hand to transport individuals from Gatwick to their final location in a luxurious manner. This gives the punter options that may not have previously been open and with the alternative of a taxi van service at your disposal the client is surely spoiled for choice.

When looking for a taxi transfer the patron is sure to be inundated with copious alternatives but for paramount service our taxis services are the cream of the crop and will move you effortlessly form one locale to the other.

On the other hand there is the Gatwick taxi that is sure to suit your fancy no matter how specific your requirements. All these taxi services are within reach for the discerning client that would like to have a taxi service fit for royals.

This UK airport taxi is the favored option for the first time or repeat visitor to this city and whenever there is the need for a quick trip to or from the aerodrome these taxi transfer services are well worth it both in terms of panache and comfort.

For taxi services that are sure to leave a positive and lasting memory these mini cabs are surely the only way to travel.